Television :An Important Part Of Education

TV reforms for education-based programs : 

In the time of TV vs. Radio, the early 1960s were an era of change. Historian Michael Curtin recounted that then-FCC-chair, Jon Doerfor and TV network heads, had come to an agreement that most of TV was based on commercialism and emphasized entertainment too much. To help counterbalance this, there was a plan organized to produce more serious news and documentary programs. This policy was placed just in time for networks to expand their news coverage on the Kennedy-Nixon campaigns and debates. This increase in coverage stirred up the polls as those who saw the debates, with Kennedy’s good looks and camera confidence, decided he had won, whereas those who listened were more impressed with Nixon. [2]

By 1962, TV reform was in full swing, and 400 prime-time documentaries had been produced, as opposed to a total of zero back in 1957. Curtin noted that news programs were extended to full half hour segments,and foreign and domestic issues were receiving heightened degrees of attention.[3]

Primarily educational television : 

Some television programs are designed with primarily educational purposes in mind, although they might rely heavily on entertainment to communicate their educational messages. Other television programs are designed to raise social awareness. The first ever television series produced in the Pacific Island country of Vanuatu, entitled Love Patrol and launched in 2007, was praised as an edutainment series, as it aimed to educate viewers on the issue of AIDS, while simultaneously providing an entertaining story.[4] One form of edutainment popular in Latin America is the educational telenovela. Miguel Sabido, a producer of telenovelas from the 1970s on, has combined communication theory with pro-health/education messages to educate audiences throughout Latin America about family planning, literacy, and other topics. He developed a model which incorporated the work of Albert Bandura and other theorists, as well as research to determine whether programs impacted audience behavior. It becomes very fun and interesting for the child but can be very educational.

Entertainment : 

Some television shows incorporate a considerable degree of historical or factual information while attempting to make the presentation or framing of such content entertaining or exciting. By making learning seem “exciting” they can be said to stimulate curiosity. The presence of edutainment is especially evident in children’s television series, such as Sesame Street, Dora the Explorer, and Teletubbies. Discovery Channel is also known for its various shows that follow that theme, including MythBusters. Sometimes these programs may be more entertaining than educational, and may replace educational shows in the televisions program lineup. The History Channel has transitioned from producing primarily factual and historical documentaries, to more sensational, dramatic, and supposedly entertaining programs, with educational content a secondary concern. Television series notable for negative reception, from around the world, either by published critics, by network executives or by audience response, can be judged based on poor quality, the lack of a budget, rapid cancellation, very low viewership, offensive content, and/or negative impact on other series on the same channel. In some cases, a show that is acceptable on its own merits can be put in a position where it does not belong and be judged “worst ever.” In many cases, “worst television series ever” lists are slanted toward more contemporary shows, in recent memory. The Children’s Television Act of 1990, which was first fully enforced in 1996, requires broadcast television stations in the United States to carry a minimum of three hours of “educational/informational” programming geared directly at children. The move prompted an exodus of non-educational children’s programming to cable television and largely failed in its efforts to expand the amount of educational television on the airwaves (in fact, children’s television in general has declined significantly on broadcast television since the act was imposed, although it can be argued that the E/I regulations could very well be the only thing keeping children’s television on broadcast airwaves in the 2010s).

Incidental educational value : 

Some programs are primarily aimed at entertainment, but may contain an incidental amount of educational content. Educational content may be inherent to the design of the show, such as with medical dramas where the plot invariably explores anatomical and biological issues. The Sentinel Award, which is administered by the University of Southern California’s Annenberg Center for Communication, the CDC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is given each year to programs that address health and medical issues in their storylines. 2006’s nominees/winners include:

  • Numb3rs – for a storyline about fighting crime using mathematics.
  • Grey’s Anatomy – for story lines about organ transplantation and cancer.
  • As the World Turns – for a breast cancer storyline that involved a major character.
  • George Lopez – for a storyline about a kidney transplant.
  • Ben & Izzy – for a storyline about two children, Ben from America and Izzy from Jordan, who form a close bond despite their different cultural backgrounds.

While some programs are typically “pure” entertainment, they may foray into educational content at select times. For older viewers, individual situation comedy episodes also occasionally serve as educational entertainment vehicles. These episodes are sometimes described in United States television commercial parlance as very special episodes. The American sitcom Happy Days produced an especially effective edutainment episode which was reported to have prompted a 600% increase in the U.S. demand for library cards. As early as the 1950s, children-aimed shows like “Watch Mr Wizard” were made which could be considered edutainment.

On the other hand some programs may seem for the lay public to contain educational content, but are actually completely fictional. It is up to experts to figure out if a specific TV program uses realistic or fictional plots. One example for only seemingly real programs are mockumentaries.

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Game Based Learning In Education

Game based learning :-

Game-based learning (GBL) is a type of game play that has defined learning outcomes. Generally, game based learning is designed to balance subject matter with gameplay and the ability of the player to retain and apply said subject matter to the real world.

origins: 

In his classical essay, “Upon the Aesthetic Education of Man”, Friedrich Schiller discusses play as a force of civilization, which helps humans rise above their instincts and become members of enlightened communities. He states that “humans are only fully human when they play”. While the text is limited by the author’s beliefs in concepts such as freedom and beauty, it nevertheless sets the stage for Johan Huizinga’s classical study, Homo Ludens.

Games have long been employed as a means of education. Using the ancient game of chess, noblemen of the Middle Ages learned strategies of war. During the Civil War, volunteers from Rhode Island played American Kriegsspiel, which had originally been created in 1812 for training Prussian officers-of-war.Then, in the early 19th century, came the creation of Kindergarten by Friedrich Fröbel, which was based on learning through play. Children delighted in his Fröbel Gifts, simple educational toys such as blocks, sewing kits, clay, and weaving materials.

theory : 

According to Richard N. Van Eck, there are three main approaches to creating software that stimulates cognitive growth in the gamer. These three approaches are: building games from scratch created by educators and programmers; integrate commercial off-the-shelf (COTS); and creating games from scratch by the students. The most time- and cost-effective approach to designing these educational games is to incorporate COTS games into the classroom with the understanding of the learning outcomes the instructor has for the course.[5] This requires the teacher to buy into the positive results of using digital games for education. It also requires teachers to have adequate self-efficacy concerning the use of these games and their technology. The students usually have high amounts of self-efficacy in usage of digital games, while the lack of confidence teachers have in incorporating the digital games usually results in less effective educational use of the games. However, Gerber and Price (2013) have found that teachers inexperience with digital games does not preclude them from the desire to incorporate them in class instruction, but districts must have in place support through regular professional development, supportive learning communities with their colleagues, and adequate financial support to implement game based learning in their class instruction.

Games often have a fantasy element that engages players in a learning activity through narrative or storylines. Educational video games can motivate children and allow them to develop an awareness of consequentiality. Children are allowed to express themselves as individuals while learning and engaging in social issues. Today’s games are more social, with most teens playing games with others at least some of the time and can incorporate many aspects of civic and political life. Students that participate in educational video games can offer deeper, more meaningful insights in all academic areas. The success of game-based learning strategies owes to active participation and interaction being at the center of the experience, and signals that current educational methods are not engaging students enough Experience with and affinity for games as learning tools is an increasingly universal characteristic among those entering higher education and the workforce. Game-based learning is an expansive category, ranging from simple paper-and-pencil games like word searches all the way up to complex, massively multiplayer online (MMO) and role-playing games. The use of collaborative game-based role-play for learning provides an opportunity for learners to apply acquired knowledge and to experiment and get feedback in the form of consequences or rewards, thus getting the experiences in the “safe virtual world”.

The built-in learning process of games is what makes a game enjoyable. The progress a player makes in a game is through learning. It is the process of the human mind grasping and coming to understand a new system. The progress of understanding a new concept through gaming makes an individual feel a sense of reward whether the game is considered entertainment (Call of Duty) or serious (FAA-approved flight simulator). Well-designed games that motivate players are what make them ideal learning environments. Real-world challenges are easier faced within a game containing effective, interactive experiences that actively engage people in the learning process. In a successful game-based learning environment, choosing actions, experiencing consequences, and working toward goals allows players to make mistakes through experimentation in a risk-free environment. Games have rules and structure and goals that inspire motivation. Games are interactive and provide outcomes and feedback. Most games also have problem solving situations that spark creativity.

Identification with the character within the video game is an important factor in the learning potential of the gamer. Some of the electronic games allow the gamer to create an avatar that is designed and “owned” by the gamer. This character is an expression of the human creating the virtual character.This has opened a new set of scientific possibilities. The virtual world can be used as a laboratory. The relationships and space within the games can simulate complex societies and relationships without having to truly participate. This application of an avatar in not limited to simulation exercises.According to Bainbridge, interviews and ethnographic research could be conducted within the reality of the game space.This could include experiments in social psychology and cognitive science. The fact that game creators and gamers are wanting new experiences within the games, the introduction of “experiments” could increase the level of play and engagement.

 

NEUROLOGICAL CONTEXT : 

 

Thiagi states that games have five major characteristics: conflict, control, closure, contrivance, and competency. Games encourage active learning, interaction between multiple people, encourages team work, and also provide a free environment that allows for skill enhancement. Games based learning provides versatility for more than one learning style, and also can affectcognitive and psychomotor skills. While learning through games can be very effective, they can become a distraction, causing them to become too focused on the game and not on learning.

“…It cannot be denied that a great deal of learning does happen in games. Computer games that are considered “good”(i.e. popular and highly rated) already provide information in various formats, although the preference in most games is for information to be visually presented. By providing information in multiple formats (visual, textual, auditory, etc.), players cannot only choose a style that matches their own preference, but they can also practice their skills in others, and sometimes they do this even without realizing it.

“By design, good games support the approaches of concrete learners through a myriad of feedback mechanisms: visual, auditory, textual, progress charts, etc. while abstract learners can ignore which ever feedback mechanisms they choose – often by simply switching them off. Abstract learners can develop theories and test them out within games in ways not feasible in real life. The “reset” button remains available to both whenever they get into trouble.

APPLICATION : 

Traditionally, technology used in school operates at the base level.They usually make up case studies designed to introduce students to certain technologies in an effort to prepare them for a future major assignment that requires the aforementioned technology. In the future, technology and games are expected to be used in simulation environments to simulate real world issues. In the professional sector, such as flight training, simulations are already used in an effort to prepare pilots for training before actually going out into planes. These training sessions are used to replicate real life stresses without the risk factor associated with flying.

Before deciding how to use game-based learning, the trainer must first determine what they would like the trainees to learn. A trainer that fails to focus training around a central idea runs the risk of using a game that fails to connect with the learners. To prevent this, tailor the material to the demographic(age group, familiarity, educational pre-text)so that the material is neither too difficult for, nor too familiar to the learner.Gathering ideas from children early in the design process has yielded useful insights into what children want in technology in general or in a specific type of application.Children’s early involvement in requirements gathering has revealed clues about gender differences in preferences related to technology, children’s navigation skills, ways of presenting textual information, application-specific content-related preferences, the variety of elements to be included in user interfaces and their structures, and children’s desire to personalize their applications. Multiplayer role playing games (MMO’s) provide opportunities for players to improve such skills as, “complex learning, thinking, and social practices”. MMO`s also provide a social network which can favor collaborative gaming and learning and contribute to the formation of teams, communication within a group and help strengthen individual and communal identities.

Ten guidelines were suggested to help guide the process of using game-based technologies with online instruction. They are the following:

1. Taking advantage of existing resources.

2. Asking students to be producers, not just consumers.

3. Avoiding being overly prescriptive and ensuring mechanisms for serendipity.

4. Being aware of non-electronic and non-media-intense games and their value in the online classroom.

5. Focusing on learning, not technology.

6. Providing lead up and debriefing sessions.

7. Embracing interdisciplinary.

8. Thinking about ways to use serious games.

9. Making the most of collaborative technologies and virtual worlds to help manage complexity.

10. Play testing the course frequently and often.

Tools Of Educational Media

Educational media and tools can be used for:

  • task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes),
  • access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed)
  • alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge, e.g., video, audio, text, image, data)

Numerous types of physical technology are currently used: digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras, and LCD projectors. Combinations of these techniques include blogs, collaborative software, ePortfolios, and virtual classrooms.

 

Audio and video

Radio offers a  synchronous educational vehicle, while streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts can be asynchronous. Classroom microphones, often wireless, can enable learners and educators to interact more clearly.

Video technology  has included VHS tapes and DVDs, as well as on-demand and synchronous methods with digital video via server or web-based options such as streamed video from YouTube, TeacherTube, Skype, Adobe Connect and webcams  Telecommuting can connect with speakers and other experts.

Interactive digital video games are being used at K-12 and higher education institutions.

Podcasting allows anybody to publish files to the Internet where individuals can subscribe and receive new files from people by a subscription.

Computers, tablets and mobile devices

Computers and tablets enable learners and educators to access websites as well as programs such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, PDF files, and images. Many mobile devices support m-learning.

Mobile devices such as clickers and smartphones can be used for interactive feedback. Mobile learning can also provide performance support for checking the time, setting reminders, retrieving worksheets, and instruction manuals.

OpenCourseWare (OCW) gives free public access to information used in undergraduate and graduate programs at institutions of higher education. Participating institutions are MITand Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Michigan.

Social networks

Group webpages, blogs, and wikis allow learners and educators to post thoughts, ideas, and comments on a website in an interactive learning environment. Social networking sites are virtual communities for people interested in a particular subject or just to “hang out” together. Members communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video conference, and blogs, and the service typically provides a way for members to contact friends of other members.The National School Boards Association found that 96% of students with online access have used social networking technologies, and more than 50% talk online specifically about schoolwork. These statistics support the likelihood of being able to bring these technologies into our classrooms and find successful teaching methods to employ their use in an educational setting. Social networking inherently encourages collaboration and engagement. Social networking can also be used as a motivational tool to promote self-efficacy amongst students.  In  a  study  by  Bowers-Campbell (2008)  Facebook  was  used  as  an  academic motivation tool for students in a developmental reading course. Group members may respond and interact with other members. Student interaction is at the core of constructivist learning environments and Social Net-working Sites provide a platform for building collaborative learning communities. By their very nature they are relationship-centred and promote shared experiences. With the emphasis on user-generated-content, some experts are concerned about the traditional roles of scholarly expertise and the reliability of digital content. Students still have to be educated and assessed within a framework that adheres to guidelines for quality. Every student has his or her own learning requirements, and a Web 2.0  educational  framework  provides  enough resources, learning styles, communication tools and flexibility to accommodate this diversity.

Webcams

Webcams and webcasting have enabled creation of virtual classrooms and virtual learning environment.

Whiteboards

Interactive whiteboards and smartboards allow learners and instructors to write on the touch screen. The screen markup can be on either a blank whiteboard or any computer screen content. Depending on permission settings, this visual learning can be interactive and participatory, including writing and manipulating images on the interactive whiteboard.

Screencasting

Screencasting allows users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that other viewers can stream the video directly.The presenter thus has the ability to show their ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them as simple text content. In combination with audio and video, the educator can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom and deliver clear, complete instructions. Learners also have an ability to pause and rewind, to review at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always offer.

Virtual classroom

Main article: Virtual Learning Environment

A Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), also known as a learning platform, simulates a virtual classroom or meetings by simultaneously mixing several communication technologies. For example, web conferencing software such as GoToTraining, WebEx Training or Adobe Connect enables students and instructors to communicate with each other via webcam, microphone, and real-time chatting in a group setting. Participants can raise hands, answer polls or take tests. Students are able to whiteboard and screencast when given rights by the instructor, who sets permission levels for text notes, microphone rights and mouse control.

A virtual classroom also provides the opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment. Learners can have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom also provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be helpful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. In addition, the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional “brick and mortar” classroom. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. Each class is recorded and stored on a server, which allows for instant playback of any class over the course of the school year. This can be extremely useful for students to review material and concepts for an upcoming exam. This also provides students with the opportunity to watch any class that they may have missed, so that they do not fall behind. It also gives parents and auditors the conceptual ability to monitor any classroom to ensure that they are satisfied with the education the learner is receiving.

In higher education especially, the increasing tendency is to create a virtual learning environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface throughout the institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments and student newspapers.

Augmented reality (AR) provides students and teachers the opportunity to create layers of digital information, that includes both virtual world and real world elements, to interact with in real time. There are already a variety of apps which offer a lot of variations and possibilities.

Learning management system

Main article: Learning management system

A learning management system (LMS) is software used for delivering, tracking and managing training and education. For example, an LMS tracks attendance, time on task, and student progress. Educators can post announcements, grade assignments, check on course activity, and participate in class discussions. Students can submit their work, read and respond to discussion questions, and take quizzes. An LMS may allow teachers, administrators, students, and permitted additional parties (such as parents if appropriate) to track various metrics. LMSs range from systems for managing training/educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning content requires substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts requires even more investment by knowledgeable personnel.

Internet-based learning management systems include Blackboard Inc. and Moodle. These types of LMS allow educators to run a learning system partially or fully online, asynchronously or synchronously. Blackboard can be used for K-12 education, Higher Education, Business, and Government collaboration.  Moodle is a free-to-download Open Source Course Management System that provides blended learning opportunities as well as platforms for distance learning courses.  Eliademy is a free cloud based Course Management System that provides blended learning opportunities as well as platforms for distance learning courses.

Media